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2000 Presidential Election

Yes, George Bush won fair and square... live with it.

Does Gore win without electoral college? - September 20, 2011

"George W. Bush won the Electoral College in 2000 following the recount in Florida. But Al Gore received more popular votes — about 540,000 more than Mr. Bush nationally, or about 0.5 percent of all votes cast across the country. So Mr. Gore would have won the election if not for the Electoral College, right? Actually, not so fast."

Media downplays military ballot controversy - May 27, 2008

"Whether or not the ballot delivery problems were planned or accidental, what is not in dispute is that Democrats on the ground in all of Florida's counties were under post-election instructions to challenge any military ballot they could. These orders were embodied in the infamous Mark Herron memo. At the time, Matt Drudge described it at his Drudge Report as a "5-Page Memo on How to Steal an Election." One element of the strategy, which involved questioning origin and destination postmarks, was particularly hypocritical, given the party's current and past hostility to voter-ID laws, one of which was deemed constitutional last month."

What really happened in Florida Panhandle - May 1, 2008

YouTube video describing the effect of the early media calls about polls being closed - this is Part 2. Part 1 is here.

Outrage over Krugman lie about recount - August 24, 2005

"Did Krugman really think he could get away with this?"

Impact of early media calls on voting rates - February 11, 2004

"Abstract: Using voting data for presidential elections from 1976 to 2000, this paper documents an unusual and large drop off in Republican voting rates for Florida’s western Panhandle during the 2000 General Elections. Little change appears to have occurred in the rate that non-Republicans voted. The results appear more consistent with the early call reducing Republican voting rates than the networks discouraging all voters from voting by incorrectly calling the polls closed in the western Panhandle." [Panel presentation here.]

The myth of the stolen election - January 5, 2004

"The unspoken truth of the 2000 election dispute in Florida is always ignored by the left: Gore never led; not on election night, not after any statewide recount, not after adding the votes from county hand recounts, and not even in the exhaustive statewide post—election recounts conducted by the major state and national newspapers (in almost all of which Bush wound up ahead when any consistent method of counting was used.) Pick your method of counting chads, and it doesn't matter. Bush won."

Biased media calls in 2000 presidential election - October 4, 2002

"Abstract. Among the controversies arising from the 2000 Presidential election was the accusation that media networks called, or projected, a winner faster in those states won by Albert Gore than in those states won by GeorgeW. Bush.We investigate this accusation by estimating a Tobit model of the length of time between states’ poll closing times and the times at which CNN projected a winner. Our results support the charge of media bias. After controlling for other factors that affect how quickly a state is called, states called for Gore were called 14 to 18 minutes faster than those called in favor of Bush."

Critique of the media consortium recount - November 13, 2001

"One could never know from this study alone who won the election..."

Recount by consortium of 8 news organizations - November 12, 2001

"Comprehensive review of uncounted Florida ballots from 2000 presidential election, conducted by consortium of eight news organizations and professional statisticians, indicates George W Bush would have won election even if US Supreme Court allowed statewide manual recount of votes ordered by state Supreme Court; finds, contrary to allegations by partisans of Vice Pres Al Gore, that Supreme Court did not award election to Bush..."

The Outcome in Bush v Gore Defended - October 2001

"After all, in order to reach that conclusion, one has to think that the United States Supreme Court committed clear error in its decision. But owing to the sorry performance of the Florida Supreme Court, that conclusion cannot be maintained, which I think is why the United States Supreme Court’s decision was greeted generally with widespread relief and not widespread protest."

Miami Herald/USA Today recount - April 3, 2001

"More than three months after Democrat Al Gore conceded the hotly contested 2000 election, an independent hand recount of Florida's ballots released today says he would have lost anyway, even if officials would have allowed the hand count he requested." [More here.]

Fraud in the 2000 Florida Presidential Election - January 9, 2001

"George Bush is the legitimate winner of the 2000 Presidential Election. Learn how Al Gore and the Democrat Party lawyers and officials tried to steal the 2000 Presidential election and almost got away with it."

2000 Presidential Election Chronology

• Tuesday, November 7 •
Election Day. Pundits have predicted a tight race between Texas governor George W. Bush and Vice President Al Gore, but few expect one of the closest elections in U.S. history. By early evening, it's clear the election hinges on Florida. At 6:00 Eastern Standard Time the national media announces Florida polls are closed and calls the state for Gore. In fact, the Florida Panhandle, which leans heavily conservative, is in a different time zone and the polls are still open.
• Wednesday, November 8 •
Gore calls Bush at approximately 3 A.M. to concede, but retracts the concession shortly after, because Bush's razor-slim lead prompts an automatic recount. He leads Gore by about 1,210 votes out of nearly 6 million cast in Florida. Meanwhile Gore leads in both the national popular count and the electoral college. An unusual amount of votes for third-party candidates in Palm Beach County leads to disputes over the county's “butterfly ballots.” A number of ballots in other counties are disqualified because the chad (the small piece of paper punched out of punch-card ballots) did not fully detach from the ballot.
• Thursday, November 9 •
Gore's camp requests a hand recount of the approximately 1.8 million ballots cast in Palm Beach, Miami-Dade, Broward, and Volusia counties... Democrat strongholds. It is this effort by Gore to cherry-pick the recount which eventually leads the U.S. Supreme Court to decide that Florida was violating the Constitution's equal protection and due process guarantees by not treating all votes equally.
• Friday, November 10 •
Florida's automatic recount is completed. The Associated Press reports that Bush has retained his lead but only by 327 votes.
• Saturday, November 11 •
The Bush team, led by former secretary of state James Baker, files suit in federal court to block Gore's request for a hand recount limited to only four counties.
• Monday, November 13 •
Florida secretary of state Katherine Harris announces she will not extend the Nov. 14 deadline for the submission of all state results, excluding absentee ballots from overseas. A federal judge in Miami rejects Bush's efforts to halt manual recounts. Bush appeals the decision.
• Tuesday, November 14 •
Harris postpones certification of the state's votes until Nov. 15, so Miami-Dade, Palm Beach, and Broward counties have time to prepare an explanation of why they should hand count their ballots.
• Wednesday, November 15 •
Harris decides that no county offered adequate evidence to justify further hand recounts. Florida Supreme Court denies a request from Harris to stop the hand recounts. Certification is again postponed.
• Thursday, November 16 •
Bush's lawyers present written arguments to the U.S. federal appeals court in Atlanta to end the manual recounts. Gore's team files a counter motion.
• Friday, November 17 •
The Florida Supreme Court blocks Harris from certifying election until it rules on the Democrats' motion to include hand recounts. • The 11th Circuit Court of Appeals denies the Republicans' motion to stop manual recounts on constitutional grounds.
• Saturday, November 18 •
With a tally of absentee ballots, uncertified count has Bush ahead of Gore by 930 votes.
• Tuesday, November 21 •
Florida Supreme Court rules that results of hand counts of ballots in Miami-Dade, Palm Beach, and Broward counties must be included in the vote tally if the counts are completed by Nov. 26.
• Sunday, November 26 •
Harris certifies Bush as the winner of Florida’s 25 electoral votes, with a 537-vote lead over Gore. Gore pledges to challenge certification in court. The tally does not include results from Palm Beach County, which finished its hand recount hours after the deadline.
• Monday, November 27 •
Gore contests the Florida results in a circuit court in Tallahassee.
• Wednesday, November 29 •
Leon County Circuit Court judge N. Sanders Sauls orders that all ballots from Palm Beach and Miami-Dade counties be sent to Tallahassee for a hearing on whether the hand count, which was incomplete at the time of the court-ordered Nov. 26 deadline, should be included in the final vote tally.
• Thursday, November 30 •
Florida lawmakers, voting along party lines, recommend holding a special session to name the state's 25 electors if the election dispute is not resolved by Dec. 12, six days before the electoral college meets.
• Friday, December 1 •
The U.S. Supreme Court hears arguments on whether the Florida Supreme Court acted properly when it forced the Florida secretary of state to accept manual recounts submitted after the legal deadline. • The Florida Supreme Court denies Gore's appeal to immediately begin recounting ballots and rejects a motion filed by some Palm Beach County citizens who questioned the integrity of the “butterfly ballot.” • Gore requests a count of approximately 14,000 “undervotes” from Palm Beach and Miami-Dade counties.
• Monday, December 4 •
Judge Sauls rejects Gore’s contest of the election results, saying the vice president failed to prove that hand recounts would have altered the results. Gore appeals to the Florida Supreme Court. • U.S. Supreme Court asks Florida Supreme Court to explain why it ordered Harris to accept results submitted after the Nov. 14 deadline mandated by state law, thus returning the case to Tallahassee.
• Thursday, December 7 •
Gore's legal team appeals Sauls's ruling. Bush's lawyers argue that the decision should stand.
• Friday, December 8 •
The Florida Supreme Court, ruling on Gore's appeal, orders manual recounts in counties with large numbers of undervotes. Bush appeals to the U.S. Supreme Court and seeks injunction to stop recounts. • In two separate lawsuits, Leon County Circuit Court judges refuse to throw out absentee ballots from Seminole and Martin counties that had been disputed by Gore.
• Saturday, December 9 •
The U.S. Supreme Court votes 5–4 to halt the hand recounts and sets a hearing for Dec. 11. Florida Supreme Court hears appeal on whether absentee ballots in Martin and Seminole counties should be counted.
• Tuesday, December 12 •
The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Bush v. Gore 7–2 to reverse the Florida Supreme Court, which had ordered manual recounts in certain counties. The Court contends that the recount was not treating all ballots equally, and was thus a violation of the Constitution's equal protection and due process guarantees. The Supreme Court of Florida would be required to set up new voting standards and carry them out in a recount. The justices, however, split 5–4 along partisan lines about implementing a remedy. Five justices maintain that this process and the recount must adhere to the official deadline for certifying electoral college votes: midnight, December 12. In other words, election procedures cannot be changed after the election to favor Al Gore. Other justices question the importance of the December 12 date. Since the Court makes its ruling just hours before the deadline, it in effect ensures that it is too late for a recount. The decision generates enormous controversy. Those objecting to the ruling assert that the Supreme Court, and not the electorate, has effectively determined the outcome of the presidential election. As Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg writes in a scathing dissent, “the Court’s conclusion that a constitutionally adequate recount is impractical is a prophecy the Court’s own judgment will not allow to be tested. Such an untested prophecy should not decide the Presidency of the United States.”
• Wednesday, December 13 •
In another decision, Florida Supreme Court decides not to hear an appeal from Gore asking that absentee ballots from Martin and Seminole counties be thrown out. In televised speeches, Gore concedes, and Bush accepts the presidency.
• Monday, December 18 •
Electoral college representatives meet in state capitals and cast votes to select president.
• Wednesday, January 5, 2001 •
Congress meets to tally electoral college results.
• Saturday, January 20, 2001 •
George W. Bush sworn in as 43rd president of the United States.

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